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Read PDF Preventive Female Sex Factors against the Development of Chronic Liver Disease

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These include country programme managers and health-care prividers responsible for planning and implementing hepatitis care and treatment programmes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. An alcohol intake assessment is recommended for all persons with HCV virus infection followed by the offer of a behavioural alcohol reduction intervention for persons with moderate-to-high alcohol intake. All adults and children with chronic HCV infection should be assessed for antiviral treatment. WHO recommends offering treatment to all individuals diagnosed with HCV infection who are 12 years of age or older, irrespective of disease stage.

New highly effective short-course oral pan-genotypic DAA regimens are likely to become available for children under 12 years of age in late or This will provide an opportunity to advance treatment access and cure to a vulnerable group that will benefit from early treatment. The strategy highlights the critical role of universal health coverage and sets targets that align with those of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The strategy has a vision to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health problem. Actions to be taken by countries and the WHO Secretariat to reach these targets are outlined in the strategy. WHO is working in the following areas to support countries in moving towards achieving the global hepatitis goals under the Sustainable Development Agenda Since , together with national governments, civil society and partners, WHO has organized annual World Hepatitis Day campaigns as 1 of its 9 flagship annual health campaigns to increase awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis.

The date of 28 July was chosen because it is the birthday of Nobel-prize winning scientist Dr Baruch Bloomberg, who discovered the hepatitis B virus and developed a diagnostic test and vaccine for the virus. Hepatitis C 9 July Key facts Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus HCV : the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cancer. The hepatitis C virus is a bloodborne virus: the most common modes of infection are through exposure to small quantities of blood.

This may happen through injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, unsafe health care, transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products, and sexual practices that lead to exposure to blood. Globally, an estimated 71 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus infection. A significant number of those who are chronically infected will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer.

WHO estimated that in , approximately people died from hepatitis C, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma primary liver cancer. There is currently no effective vaccine against hepatitis C; however, research in this area is ongoing. Hepatitis C virus causes both acute and chronic infection. In addition, hepatic steatosis and central obesity are observed in growth hormone deficiency in adults. Growth hormone secretion is greater in women and is stimulated by estrogen. Estrogen is a potent endogenous antioxidant and suppresses hepatic fibrosis.

These lines of evidence suggest that the greater progression of hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer in men and postmenopausal women may be due, at least in part, to lower secretions of estrogen and growth hormone, higher hepatic iron stores and increased immune responses.

Using gender and sex as a unique prism through which to observe and better understand normal function and the experience of disease is one of the most important new ideas in medicine. This e-Book constitutes a collection of selected clinical and scientific topics in conjunction with the sex-associated differences of the liver disease.


  • Viral hepatitis: Types, symptoms, treatment, and prevention!
  • Table of Contents.
  • Nuramans Endgame.
  • Liver problems - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic.
  • Fridays Child.
  • related stories.

After considering the data and examples presented in the e-Book, anyone will be able to use new opportunities to obtain a better understanding of the sex-associated differences of chronic liver disease. Some of these differences can be explained by what we now know.

Some are unexplained and point to important questions for future study.

How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime - Nadine Burke Harris

Being female or male is an important basic human variable that affects health and liver disease throughout the life span. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the differences in chronic liver disease between the sexes would provide valuable information to design care of health and liver disease more effectively for individuals, both females and males.

Myth #2: Liver cleanses are a safe and healthy way to lose weight.

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Download Flyer. Table of Contents Foreword - Pp. Preface - Pp. List of Contributors - Pp. Estrogen Reduces Hepatic Fibrosis - Pp. Index - Pp. Foreword The era of individualized medicine has arrived in the field of hepatology. The most common risk factor among people with new HBV infections was injecting drugs, related to the opioid crisis.

The highest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States occur among foreign-born individuals, especially people born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa.

Hepatitis C

Over half of cases in the United States are among people who were born outside of the United States. CDC developed this map of the geographic distribution of hepatitis B around the world. Other groups who have higher rates of chronic HBV infection include people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men.

About 10 percent of people living with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV reflecting the shared modes of transmission for these two infections.

All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the HBV vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. Hepatitis B is spread in several distinct ways: sexual contact; sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment; or from mother to baby at birth. Less commonly reported risk factors included accidental needle sticks, surgery, transfusions, and household contact with a person with HBV. Mother-to-child transmission of HBV is especially concerning, because it is preventable.

An estimated 25, infants are born to mothers diagnosed with HBV each year in the United States, and approximately 1, mothers transmit HBV to their infants. Tragically 90 percent of HBV-infected newborns will develop chronic infection, remaining infected throughout their lives, and up to 25 percent of people infected at birth will die prematurely of HBV-related causes.

For this reason, the standard of care for pregnant women includes an HBV test during each pregnancy so that the appropriate steps can be taken to prevent HBV-positive mothers from transmitting the disease to her infant. Globally, mother-to-child transmission and inadequate infection control in health care settings represent significant modes of viral hepatitis transmission.

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective and is usually given as 3 shots over a 6-month period starting at birth. A newly approved hepatitis B vaccine for adults requires only two doses given over 30 days, which provides an opportunity to increase protection among adults more rapidly with fewer medical visits.

There is also a combination vaccine approved for adults that protects people from both hepatitis A and hepatitis B.


  1. Transmission.
  2. Miss Too Good – Nothing But The Best Is Good Enough For Me! (Singles Street Life);
  3. In Absentia (Hypergraphia).
  4. The combined vaccine is usually given as 3 shots over a 6-month period. These tools may support increased vaccination in settings such as jails, prisons, and substance use disorder prevention and treatment programs.

    Guidelines For Viral Hepatitis Surveillance And Case Management

    Immunization programs for infants and adolescents that started in have resulted in substantial declines in the incidence of HBV infection in young people. Find out if you should get the hepatitis B vaccine. Also, the Hepatitis B vaccine is a covered preventive service under many health plans.